The lesser Town, which was called the Lesser Town in the past, was founded by King Přemysl II in 1257. Its central area was always the present Lesser Town Square. It is divided on two parts, the upper and the lower, by the magnificent Church of St Nicholas and set of other buildings. Project of the church had been elaborated by builder Kryštof Dientzenhofer, who also controlled construction in 1703-1711. Completion of the whole premises took fifty years due to lack of financial means, plague, which came in 1713 and war events in 1741 and 1744. After father, his famous son Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer continued in work. He created the cathedral closure with cupola and part of the tower towards gallery. However, completion of the tower stayed within the family, because after the death of Dientzenhofer junior, his son-in-law, architect Anselmo Lurago, made it. He created the upper thin rococo belfry, of the same length as the cathedral cupola.
Frontages of the houses and palaces, which surround the Lesser Town Square, represent architectural development since the renaissance period until the beginning of 20th century. The building of previous Lesser Town Hall no. 35 is standing in the lower part of the square. Within the huge reconstruction in 2008 the three towers were returned there. Furthermore, house U Splavínů no. 36, on whose facade there is mural painting, representing Coronation of the Virgin Mary. And also the Kaiserstein Palace no. 37. On the parapet there are four elements – Fire, Air, Water, Earth by Ottavio Mosto from 1701. The western side of the square is closed by Hartig Palace no. 259 and Lichtenstein Palace no. 258, used for musical education after reconstruction.
In the middle of the upper part of the square there is standing a three-side pyramid with the sculptural group of the Holy Trinity and sculptures of the Virgin Mary and of five Czech patrons from 1715. Fountains, vases and puttos were established in 1772. Baroque period thanked for ending the plague epidemic in 1713 and for hunger abatement in 1772 in this way.