The oldest Prague historical square takes area of 80 550 m2. It was founded in relation to establishment of the New Town of Prague by Charles IV in 1348. At first it had got name Cattle Market because markets with cattle were held there, especially in the southern part. Since 1848 it has born the official name of the Charles Square.
The square is surrounded with numerous important buildings. Let’s mention at least the New Town Hall and its high turret, house U Kamenného stolu no. 671, a corner neo-renaissance building of Czech Technical University no. 293, or Mladota’s Palace, so-called Faust’s House no. 502 and 503 in the southern part. Sacral architecture is represented with dignity by barque church dedicated to the founder of the Society of Jesus – Jesuits, St Ignatius of Loyola. South of the church there are standing large premises of the previous New Town College, which has been used mostly for hospital purposes now.
The Charles Square is also a square of sculptures and memorials. We can find there a memorial to Czech traveller and botanist Benedikt Roezl, a memorial to scholar Jan Evangelista Purkyně, a sculpture of writer Eliška Krásnohorská, a bust of writer Karolina Světlá and a memorial to poet Vítězslav Hálek. In front of the New Town Hall there is a fountain with top sculpture of St Joseph.
Director of Prague orchards, František Thomayer, was charged with the final change of the square into orchards in 1884. This landscape designer, with artistic feelings and rich practice, adjusted the park into the shape, which we have known till now except for tiny changes. The northern part underwent a huge renewal a few years ago.
In the middle of the square there are several entrances into underground hall of A route – the Charles Square.